a) Digitize a line from point (-1, -1) to point (4, 5) using Bresenham’s Line Generation Algorithm.

b) Find out (using Bresenham algorithm) the pixel location approximating
the first octant of a circle having center at (0,0) and radius 5.

c) Compare and contrast the following:

i) Cyrus Beck and Cohen Sutherland Line clipping algorithms

ii) Random and Raster Scan display devices

d) With the help of suitable diagram and related tables describe how frame buffer can be used to control the color and intensity of the picture display?

Q2:

a) Say ABC is a triangle with coordinates A(-2,0), B(-1,1), C(-1,-1).

Find the transformed coordinates when the triangle ABC is subjected
to the anticlockwise rotation of 45° about an axis passing through
the centroid of the triangle such that it is parallel to y-axis?

c) A polygon has 4 vertices located at A (10, 10) B (10, 40), C (40,10), D (40,40). Indicate a transformation matrix to have its reflection about X-axis?

d) Obtain the Perspective projection on the X=Z plane, with center of projection being at (-1,0,0), also find principal vanishing point?

e) Compare and contrast the perspective projection with the parallel
projection? Justify your answer that parallel projections preserves
lateral measurements?

Q3:

a) Find equation of Bezier curve which passes through points (0, 0)
and (– 2, 1) and is controlled through points (7, 5) and (2,
0).

b) A Bezier curve is to be drawn given the control points P1 (40, 40), P2 (10, 40), P3 (60, 60), P4 (60, 0). Calculate the coordinates of the points on the curve corresponding to the parameter t = 0.2, 0.4, 0.6. Draw a rough sketch of the curve and show coordinates of various points on it.?

c) Briefly discuss the concept of following:

Hidden surface removal algorithms

Phong shading

d) What do you mean by Specular reflection?Is their any relation
of surface texture with the type of reflection produced on the exposure
of that surface to some light source? Explain with the help of diagram
and suitable mathematical equations?

Q4:

a) Differentiate between following:

Morphing and Panning

Motion Specific animation and Motion Generalized animation

b) How many key frames are required to produce an animation film Sequence with duplications, having duration of five minutes?

c) What do you mean by terms Cel animation and Sprite animation? Suggest which technique of animation is better and why?